“This paper reports on a more detailed study with (a) data from more than 3x as many students, (b) analysis of performance changes in incorrect answers, (c) problems in which the Bootstrap scaffolds have been removed, and (d) an IRT analysis... Our results confirm that students improve on algebraic word problems after completing the module, even on unscaffolded problems.”

**Creativity, Customization, and Ownership: Game Design in Bootstrap:Algebra ::**
*ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE), 2018*

“Our study shows that despite very limited personalization, students still feel a strong sense of ownership, originality, and pride in their creations. We also find that females find videogame creation just as satisfying as males, which contradicts some prior research but may also reflect the nature of games created in this curriculum and the opportunities it offers for self-expression.”

**Transferring Skills at Solving Word Problems from Computing to Algebra Through Bootstrap ::**
*ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE), 2015*

“Many educators have tried to leverage computing or programming to help improve students' achievement in mathematics. However, several hopes of performance gains — particularly in algebra — have come up short.”

**The Influence of Teaching Programming on Learning Mathematics ::**
*Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (SITE), 2013*

“A pre and post mathematics inventory was used to measure the impact teaching this course (which used a video game development programming pedagogy) had on student understanding of mathematics. The findings from the study suggest that student understanding of functions and variables did increase after participating in the course.”

“Adding computer science to already-packed middle- and high-school curricula can be difficult; after-school programs offer an enticing alternative to broadening student exposure to computing.”

**Why Computer Science Doesn't Matter ::**
*Communications of the ACM (CACM), 2009*

“Aligning computer science with high school mathematics can help turn it into an essential subject for all students. ”

Unlike most K-12 CS courses, all of Bootstrap's modules use

**Whalesong: Running Racket in the Browser ::**
*Dynamic Languages Symposium (DLS), 2013*

“Implementing this model in a browser's JavaScript is not trivial. The main obstacles lie in asynchronicity and event-driven event-loops.”

**WeScheme: The Browser is Your Programming Environment ::**
*Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE), 2011*

“WeScheme is being used successfully by students, and is especially valuable in schools that have prohibitions on installing new software or lack the computational demands of more intensive programming environments.”

**Measuring the Effectiveness of Error Messages Designed for Novice Programmers ::**
*ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE), 2011*

“We present a rubric (which is not language specific) to evaluate student responses, apply it to a courseworth of student lab work, and describe what we have learned about using the rubric effectively. We also discuss some concrete observations on the effectiveness of these messages.”

**A Functional I/O System ::**
*ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP), 2009*

“Once middle school students are hooked on this form of programming, our curriculum provides a smooth path for them from pre-algebra to freshman courses in college on object-oriented design and theorem proving.”

“The environment is especially useful for students, because it has a tower of syntactically restricted variants of Scheme that are designed to catch typical student mistakes and explain them in terms the students understand.”

**DrScheme: A Programming Environment for Scheme ::**
*Journal of Functional Programming, 2002*

“The environment is especially useful for students, because it has a tower of syntactically restricted variants of Scheme that are designed to catch typical student mistakes and explain them in terms the students understand.”

“In this pearl, we propose an alternative role for functional programming in the first-year curriculum.”

**The TeachScheme! Project: Computing and Programming for Every Student ::**
*Computer Science Education, 2004*

“The TeachScheme! Project aims to reform three aspects of introductory programming courses in secondary schools.”