Bootstrap lessons align with several important teaching standards, textbooks, and practices. Select from the following menu to see which lessons meet those alignments.

## Common Core Math Standards

5.G.A.1

Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate). [See: Coordinates and Game Design(Pyret); Coordinates and Game Design(WeScheme).]

6.EE.B.5

Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true. [See: Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities.]

6.EE.B.6
6.EE.B.8

Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. [See: Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

6.G.A.4

Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

6.RP.A

Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Displaying Categorical Data; Making Flags; Displaying Categorical Data; Making Flags.]

6.RP.A.3.D

Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

6.SP.A

Develop understanding of statistical variability. [See: Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Linear Regression; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Linear Regression.]

6.SP.A.1

Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. [See: Introduction to Computational Data Science; Choosing Your Dataset; Introduction to Computational Data Science.]

6.SP.A.2

Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. [See: Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

6.SP.B.4

Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset.]

6.SP.B.5

Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. [See: Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

6.SP.B.5.C

Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context by giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. [See: Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

6.SP.B.5.D

Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context by relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

7.EE.A.2

Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition.]

7.EE.B

Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); The Distance Formula(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme); The Distance Formula(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Problem Decomposition; Solving Word Problems.]

7.EE.B.4

Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Values; Defining Functions; Solving Word Problems; Simple Inequalities; Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions; Defining Values; Defining Functions; Solving Word Problems.]

7.G.B.6

Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

7.RP.A

Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

7.RP.A.1

Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

7.RP.A.3

Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

7.SP.B

Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

8.EE.B.5

Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. [See: Linear Relationships.]

8.F.A.1

Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

8.F.A.2

Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). [See: Linear Relationships.]

8.F.B
8.F.B.4

Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. [See: Linear Relationships.]

8.G.A.1

Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

8.G.B

Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

8.G.B.7

Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

8.G.B.8

Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

8.SP.A.1

Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Grouped Samples; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Grouped Samples; Defining Functions; Grouped Samples; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Defining Functions.]

8.SP.A.2

Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. [See: Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

8.SP.A.3

Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

HSA.CED.A.1

Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

HSA.CED.A.3

Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

HSA.SSE.A.1

Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Values; Defining Functions; Defining Values; Defining Functions.]

HSA.SSE.A.1.A

Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. [See: Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme).]

HSA.SSE.A.1.B

Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. [See: Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme).]

HSA.SSE.A.2

Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

HSA.SSE.B

Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

HSF.BF.A

Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. [See: Function Composition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Function Composition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Function Composition; Problem Decomposition; Function Composition.]

HSF.BF.A.1
HSF.BF.A.1.C
HSF.BF.B
HSF.IF.A

Understand the concept of a function and use function notation. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Linear Relationships; Defining Functions.]

HSF.IF.A.1

Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Defining Linear Relationships; Contracts.]

HSF.IF.A.2

Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Making Flags(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Making Flags(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Making Flags; Defining Functions; Solving Word Problems; Simple Inequalities; Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions; Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships; Contracts; Making Flags; Defining Functions; Solving Word Problems.]

HSF.IF.B

Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Making Flags; Defining Functions; Making Flags; Defining Functions.]

HSF.IF.B.5

Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. [See: Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships.]

HSF.IF.C

Analyze functions using different representations. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships; Defining Functions.]

HSF.IF.C.9

Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). [See: Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships.]

HSF.LE.B

Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme).]

HSN.Q.A

Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

HSS.CP.A.1

Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events ('or', 'and', 'not'). [See: Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions.]

HSS.CP.B.9

Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems. [See: Permutations; Combinations.]

HSS.IC.B.3

Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]

HSS.IC.B.6

Evaluate reports based on data. [See: Threats to Validity.]

HSS.ID.A

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

HSS.ID.A.1

Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset.]

HSS.ID.A.2

Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. [See: Histograms; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Histograms; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

HSS.ID.A.3

Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

HSS.ID.B.6

Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. [See: Scatter Plots; Correlations; Scatter Plots; Correlations.]

HSS.ID.B.6.A

Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

HSS.ID.B.6.C

Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

HSS.ID.C.7

Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

HSS.ID.C.8

Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit. [See: Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

HSS.ID.C.9

Distinguish between correlation and causation. [See: Correlations; Linear Regression; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

## Common Core ELA Standards

SL.9-10.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. [See: Introduction to Computational Data Science; Introduction to Computational Data Science.]

## CSTA Standards

1B-AP-09

Create programs that use variables to store and modify data. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values; Structures, Reactors, and Animations; Key Events; Your Own Drawing Functions; Build Your Own Animation; Adding Collisions.]

1B-AP-10

Create programs that include sequences, events, loops, and conditionals. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme); Method Chaining; If-Expressions; Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Structures, Reactors, and Animations; Key Events; Adding Collisions.]

1B-AP-11

Decompose (break down) problems into smaller, manageable subproblems to facilitate the program development process. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Choosing Your Dataset; Problem Decomposition; Refactoring; Going Deeper: Nested Structures.]

1B-AP-12

Modify, remix, or incorporate portions of an existing program into one’s own work, to develop something new or add more advanced features. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme); Introduction to Data Structures; Structures, Reactors, and Animations; Key Events; Refactoring.]

1B-AP-14

Observe intellectual property rights and give appropriate attribution when creating or remixing programs. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

1B-AP-15

Test and debug (identify and fix errors) a program or algorithm to ensure it runs as intended. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Checking Your Work; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Refactoring.]

1B-AP-17

Describe choices made during program development using code comments, presentations, and demonstrations. [See: Introduction to Data Structures; Functions That Ask Questions.]

1B-DA-06

Organize and present collected data visually to highlight relationships and support a claim. [See: Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

1B-DA-07

Use data to highlight or propose cause-and-effect relationships, predict outcomes, or communicate an idea. [See: Scatter Plots; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Linear Regression.]

1B-IC-21

Use public domain or creative commons media, and refrain from copying or using material created by others without permission. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

2-AP-10

Use flowcharts and/or pseudocode to address complex problems as algorithms [See: Structures, Reactors, and Animations.]

2-AP-11
2-AP-12

Design and iteratively develop programs that combine control structures, including nested loops and compound conditionals [See: Build Your Own Animation; Adding Levels; Making Pong; Going Deeper: Nested Structures.]

2-AP-13

Decompose problems and subproblems into parts to facilitate the design, implementation, and review of programs [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Problem Decomposition; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Refactoring; Going Deeper: Nested Structures.]

2-AP-14

Create procedures with parameters to organize code and make it easier to reuse. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Table Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Table Functions; Defining Functions; Introduction to Data Structures; Functions That Ask Questions; Key Events; Refactoring; Your Own Drawing Functions; Scoring.]

2-AP-16

Incorporate existing code, media, and libraries into original programs, and give attribution. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

2-AP-17
2-AP-19
2-DA-08

Collect data using computational tools and transform the data to make it more useful and reliable. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Table Methods; If-Expressions; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Displaying Categorical Data; Table Methods; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples.]

2-DA-09

Refine computational models based on the data they have generated. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Scatter Plots; Correlations.]

2-IC-21

Discuss issues of bias and accessibility in the design of existing technologies [See: Threats to Validity.]

2-IC-23

Describe tradeoffs between allowing information to be public and keeping information private and secure. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

3A-AP-15

Justify the selection of specific control structures when tradeoffs involve implementation, readability, and program performance, and explain the benefits and drawbacks of choices made. [See: Refactoring; Going Deeper: Nested Structures.]

3A-AP-16

Design and iteratively develop computational artifacts for practical intent, personal expression, or to address a societal issue by using events to initiate instructions. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme); Choosing Your Dataset; Ethics and Privacy; Your Own Drawing Functions; Build Your Own Animation.]

3A-AP-17

Decompose problems into smaller components through systematic analysis, using constructs such as procedures, modules, and/or objects. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Choosing Your Dataset; Method Chaining; Problem Decomposition; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Refactoring; Going Deeper: Nested Structures.]

3A-AP-18

Create artifacts by using procedures within a program, combinations of data and procedures, or independent but interrelated programs. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Making Flags; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Making Flags; Scoring; Adding Levels; Feature: Timers.]

3A-AP-20

Evaluate licenses that limit or restrict use of computational artifacts when using resources such as libraries [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

3A-AP-23

Document design decisions using text, graphics, presentations, and/or demonstrations in the development of complex programs. [See: Choosing Your Dataset.]

3A-DA-11

Create interactive data visualizations using software tools to help others better understand real-world phenomena. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Linear Regression; Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Linear Regression.]

3A-DA-12

Create computational models that represent the relationships among different elements of data collected from a phenomenon or process. [See: Scatter Plots; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Linear Regression.]

3A-IC-24

Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

3A-IC-29

Explain the privacy concerns related to the collection and generation of data through automated processes that may not be evident to users. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

3A-IC-30

Evaluate the social and economic implications of privacy in the context of safety, law, or ethics. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

3B-AP-10
3B-AP-13

Illustrate the flow of execution of a recursive algorithm [See: Structures, Reactors, and Animations.]

3B-AP-14
3B-AP-21
3B-AP-22

Modify an existing program to add additional functionality and discuss intended and unintended implications (e.g., breaking other functionality). [See: Player Animation(Pyret); Player Animation(WeScheme); Functions That Ask Questions; Scoring; Feature: Timers.]

3B-NI-05

Use data analysis tools and techniques to identify patterns in data representing complex systems [See: If-Expressions; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

3B-NI-07

Evaluate the ability of models and simulations to test and support the refinement of hypotheses. [See: Correlations; Threats to Validity; Correlations.]

## K-12CS Standards

6-8.Algorithms and Programming.Control

Programmers select and combine control structures, such as loops, event handlers, and conditionals, to create more complex program behavior. [See: Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Functions That Ask Questions.]

6-8.Algorithms and Programming.Modularity

Programs use procedures to organize code, hide implementation details, and make code easier to reuse. Procedures can be repurposed in new programs. Defining parameters for procedures can generalize behavior and increase reusability. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Table Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Table Functions; Defining Functions; Refactoring.]

6-8.Algorithms and Programming.Variables

Programmers create variables to store data values of selected types. A meaningful identifier is assigned to each variable to access and perform operations on the value by name. Variables enable the flexibility to represent different situations, process different sets of data, and produce varying outputs. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Values; Defining Functions; Defining Values; Defining Functions; Introduction to Data Structures.]

6-8.Computing Systems.Troubleshooting

Comprehensive troubleshooting requires knowledge of how computing devices and components work and interact. A systematic process will identify the source of a problem, whether within a device or in a larger system of connected devices. [See: Checking Your Work.]

6-8.Data and Analysis.Collection

People design algorithms and tools to automate the collection of data by computers. When data collection is automated, data is sampled and converted into a form that a computer can process. For example, data from an analog sensor must be converted into a digital form. The method used to automate data collection is influenced by the availability of tools and the intended use of the data. [See: Threats to Validity.]

6-8.Data and Analysis.Inference and Models

People transform, generalize, simplify, and present large data sets in different ways to influence how other people interpret and understand the underlying information. Examples include visualization, aggregation, rearrangement, and application of mathematical operations. [See: Data Displays and Lookups; If-Expressions; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Data Displays and Lookups; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

6-8.Data and Analysis.Visualization and Transformation

Computer models can be used to simulate events, examine theories and inferences, or make predictions with either few or millions of data points. Computer models are abstractions that represent phenomena and use data and algorithms to emphasize key features and relationships within a system. As more data is automatically collected, models can be refined. [See: Scatter Plots; Correlations; Scatter Plots; Correlations.]

9-12.Algorithms and Programming.Control

Programmers consider tradeoffs related to implementation, readability, and program performance when selecting and combining control structures. [See: Method Chaining; If-Expressions; Method Chaining; Method Chaining.]

9-12.Algorithms and Programming.Modularity

Complex programs are designed as systems of interacting modules, each with a specific role, coordinating for a common overall purpose. These modules can be procedures within a program; combinations of data and procedures; or independent, but interrelated, programs. Modules allow for better management of complex tasks. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Defining Functions; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Defining Functions.]

9-12.Algorithms and Programming.Variables

Data structures are used to manage program complexity. Programmers choose data structures based on functionality, storage, and performance tradeoffs. [See: Introduction to Data Structures.]

9-12.Computing Systems.Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting complex problems involves the use of multiple sources when researching, evaluating, and implementing potential solutions. Troubleshooting also relies on experience, such as when people recognize that a problem is similar to one they have seen before or adapt solutions that have worked in the past. [See: Checking Your Work.]

9-12.Data and Analysis.Collection

Data is constantly collected or generated through automated processes that are not always evident, raising privacy concerns. The different collection methods and tools that are used influence the amount and quality of the data that is observed and recorded. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

9-12.Data and Analysis.Inference and Models

The accuracy of predictions or inferences depends upon the limitations of the computer model and the data the model is built upon. The amount, quality, and diversity of data and the features chosen can affect the quality of a model and ability to understand a system. Predictions or inferences are tested to validate models. [See: Linear Regression; Threats to Validity; Linear Regression.]

9-12.Data and Analysis.Visualization and Transformation

Data can be transformed to remove errors, highlight or expose relationships, and/or make it easier for computers to process. [See: Data Displays and Lookups; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots; Data Displays and Lookups; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Scatter Plots.]

9-12.Impacts of Computing.Culture

The design and use of computing technologies and artifacts can improve, worsen, or maintain inequitable access to information and opportunities. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

9-12.Impacts of Computing.Safety, Law, and Ethics

Laws govern many aspects of computing, such as privacy, data, property, information, and identity. These laws can have beneficial and harmful effects, such as expediting or delaying advancements in computing and protecting or infringing upon people’s rights. International differences in laws and ethics have implications for computing. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

## Oklahoma Standards

OK.3.A.V.01

Create programs that use variables to store and modify grade level appropriate data. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

OK.3.AP.A.01

Compare multiple algorithms for the same task. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.3.AP.M.01

Decompose the steps needed to solve a problem into a precise sequence of instructions. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.3.AP.PD.03

Analyze and debug a program that includes sequencing, repetition and variables in a programming language. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.4.AP.C.01

Create programs using a programming language that utilize sequencing, repetition, conditionals and variables using math operations manipulate values to solve a problem or express ideas both independently and collaboratively. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.4.AP.V.01

Create programs that use variables to store and modify grade level appropriate data. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

OK.5.AP.V.01

Create programs that use variables to store and modify grade level appropriate data. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

OK.5.DA.IM.01

Use data to highlight or propose cause and effect relationships, predict outcomes, or communicate an idea. [See: Introduction to Computational Data Science; Introduction to Computational Data Science.]

OK.5.GM.1.1

Describe, classify and construct triangles, including equilateral, right, scalene, and isosceles triangles. Recognize triangles in various contexts. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

OK.6.A.1.1

Plot integer- and rational-valued (limited to halves and fourths) ordered-pairs as coordinates in all four quadrants and recognize the reflective relationships among coordinates that differ only by their signs. [See: Coordinates and Game Design(Pyret); Making Flags(Pyret); Coordinates and Game Design(WeScheme); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.6.A.1.3

Use and evaluate variables in expressions, equations, and inequalities that arise from various contexts, including determining when or if, for a given value of the variable, an equation or inequality involving a variable is true or false. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

OK.6.A.3.1

Represent real-world or mathematical situations using expressions, equations and inequalities involving variables and rational numbers. [See: Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities; Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions.]

OK.6.AP.A.01

Use an existing algorithm in natural language or pseudocode to solve complex problems. [See: Restating the Problem(Pyret); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Restating the Problem.]

OK.6.AP.C.01

Develop programs that utilize combinations of repetition, conditionals, and the manipulation of variables representing different data types. [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); If-Expressions; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

OK.6.AP.M.01

Decompose problems into parts to facilitate the design, implementation, and review of programs. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme); Making Flags; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Problem Decomposition; Making Flags.]

OK.6.AP.PD.03

Test and refine programs using teacher provided inputs. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.6.AP.PD.05

Document text-based programs in order to make them easier to follow, test, and debug. [See: Restating the Problem(Pyret); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Restating the Problem.]

OK.6.D.1.3

Create and analyze box and whisker plots observing how each segment contains one quarter of the data. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Grouped Samples; Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Grouped Samples; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset.]

OK.6.DA.CVT.01

Collect data using computational tools and transform the data to make it more useful. [See: Spread of a dataset; Spread of a dataset.]

OK.6.DA.S.01

Identify how the same data can be represented in multiple ways. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

OK.6.GM.2.2

Develop and use the fact that the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180° to determine missing angle measures in a triangle. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

OK.7.A.3.3

Represent real-world or mathematical situations using equations and inequalities involving variables and rational numbers. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Defining Values; Simple Inequalities; Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Defining Values.]

OK.7.A.4.2

Apply understanding of order of operations and grouping symbols when using calculators and other technologies [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

OK.7.AP.A.01

Select and modify an existing algorithm in natural language or pseudocode to solve complex problems. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Table Methods; Simple Data Types; Restating the Problem; Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism; Table Methods; Simple Data Types.]

OK.7.AP.C.01

Develop programs that utilize combinations of repetition, compound conditionals, and the manipulation of variables representing different data types. [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); If-Expressions; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

OK.7.AP.M.01

Decompose problems into parts to facilitate the design, implementation, and review of increasingly complex programs. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme); Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Problem Decomposition; Method Chaining.]

OK.7.AP.PD.03

Test and refine programs using a variety of student created inputs. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.7.AP.PD.05

Document text-based programs of increasing complexity in order to make them easier to follow, test, and debug. [See: Restating the Problem(Pyret); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Restating the Problem.]

OK.7.CS.T.01

Identify and fix increasingly complex software and hardware problems with computing devices and their components. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition.]

OK.7.D.1.2

Use reasoning with proportions to display and interpret data in circle graphs (pie charts) and histograms. Choose the appropriate data display and know how to create the display using a spreadsheet or other graphing technology. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Grouped Samples; Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Grouped Samples; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset.]

OK.7.DA.CVT.01

Collect data using computational tools and transform the data to make it more useful and reliable. [See: Spread of a dataset; Spread of a dataset.]

OK.7.DA.S.01

Create multiple representations of data. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

OK.7.GM.1.1

Using a variety of tools and strategies, develop the concept that surface area of a rectangular prism with rational-valued edge lengths can be found by wrapping the figure with samesized square units without gaps or overlap. Use appropriate measurements such as cm^2 [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

OK.7.GM.4.1

Describe the properties of similarity, compare geometric figures for similarity, and determine scale factors resulting from dilations. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.7.GM.4.2

Apply proportions, ratios, and scale factors to solve problems involving scale drawings and determine side lengths and areas of similar triangles and rectangles. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.7.N.1.1

Know that every rational number can be written as the ratio of two integers or as a terminating or repeating decimal. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

OK.7.N.1.2

Compare and order rational numbers expressed in various forms using the symbols <, >, and =. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

OK.7.N.1.3

Recognize and generate equivalent representations of rational numbers, including equivalent fractions. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

OK.8.AP.A.01

Design algorithms in natural language, flow and control diagrams, comments within code, and/or pseudocode to solve complex problems. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme); Making Flags; Solving Word Problems; Restating the Problem; Making Flags; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.8.AP.C.01

Develop programs that utilize combinations of nested repetition, compound conditionals, procedures without parameters, and the manipulation of variables representing different data types. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

OK.8.AP.M.01

Decompose problems and subproblems into parts to facilitate the design, implementation, and review of complex programs. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme); Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Problem Decomposition; Method Chaining.]

OK.8.AP.PD.02

Incorporate existing code, media, and libraries into original programs of increasing complexity and give attribution. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions.]

OK.8.AP.PD.03

Systematically test and refine programs using a range of student created inputs. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.8.AP.PD.04

Explain how effective communication between participants is required for successful collaboration when developing computational artifacts. [See: Restating the Problem(Pyret); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Restating the Problem.]

OK.8.AP.PD.05

Document text-based programs of increasing complexity in order to make them easier to follow, test, and debug. [See: Restating the Problem(Pyret); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Restating the Problem.]

OK.8.CS.T.01

Systematically identify, fix, and document increasingly complex software and hardware problems with computing devices and their components. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition.]

OK.8.DA.CVT.01

Develop, implement, and refine a process that utilizes computational tools to collect and transform data to make it more useful and reliable. [See: Introduction to Computational Data Science; Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples; Introduction to Computational Data Science; Grouped Samples.]

OK.8.DA.S.01

Analyze multiple methods of representing data and choose the most appropriate method for representing data. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset; Grouped Samples; Displaying Categorical Data; Data Displays and Lookups; Grouped Samples; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Spread of a dataset.]

OK.8.IC.SI.01

Communicate and publish key ideas and details individually or collaboratively in a way that informs, persuades, and/or entertains using a variety of digital tools and media-rich resources. Describe and use safe, appropriate, and responsible practices (netiquette) when participating in online communities (e.g., discussion groups, blogs, social networking sites). [See: Choosing Your Dataset; Threats to Validity.]

OK.A1.A.1.1

Use knowledge of solving equations with rational values to represent and solve mathematical and real-world problems (e.g., angle measures, geometric formulas, science, or statistics) and interpret the solutions in the original context. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions.]

OK.A1.A.2

Represent and solve real-world and mathematical problems using linear inequalities, compound inequalities and systems of linear inequalities; interpret solutions in the original context. [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

OK.A1.A.2.2

Represent relationships in various contexts with compound and absolute value inequalities and solve the resulting inequalities by graphing and interpreting the solutions on a number line. [See: Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

OK.A1.A.3

Generate equivalent algebraic expressions and use algebraic properties to evaluate expressions and arithmetic and geometric sequences. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

OK.A1.A.3.1

Solve equations involving several variables for one variable in terms of the others. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition.]

OK.A1.A.4.1

Calculate and interpret slope and the x- and y-intercepts of a line using a graph, an equation, two points, or a set of data points to solve realworld and mathematical problems. [See: Defining Linear Relationships.]

OK.A1.D.1.1

Describe a data set using data displays, describe and compare data sets using summary statistics, including measures of central tendency, location, and spread. Know how to use calculators, spreadsheets, or other appropriate technology to display data and calculate summary statistics. [See: Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

OK.A1.D.2.1

Select and apply counting procedures, such as the multiplication and addition principles and tree diagrams, to determine the size of a sample space (the number of possible outcomes) and to calculate probabilities. [See: Table Methods; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; Method Chaining; Table Methods; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining.]

OK.A1.F.1.2

Identify the dependent and independent variables as well as the domain and range given a function, equation, or graph. Identify restrictions on the domain and range in real-world contexts. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

OK.A1.F.1.3

Write linear functions, using function notation, to model real-world and mathematical situations. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Function Composition(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Function Composition(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Function Composition; Defining Functions; Contracts; Function Composition; Defining Functions.]

OK.A1.F.1.4

Given a graph modeling a real-world situation, read and interpret the linear piecewise function (excluding step functions). [See: Contracts(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

OK.A1.F.3.1

Identify and generate equivalent representations of linear equations, graphs, tables, and real-world situations. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Linear Relationships; Defining Values.]

OK.A1.F.3.2

Use function notation; evaluate a function, including nonlinear, at a given point in its domain algebraically and graphically. Interpret the results in terms of real-world and mathematical problems. [See: Function Composition(Pyret); Function Composition(WeScheme); Function Composition; Function Composition.]

OK.A1.F.3.3

Add, subtract, and multiply functions using function notation. [See: Function Composition(Pyret); Function Composition(WeScheme); Function Composition; Function Composition.]

OK.A2.D.2.1

Evaluate reports based on data published in the media by identifying the source of the data, the design of the study, and the way the data are analyzed and displayed. Given spreadsheets, tables, or graphs, recognize and analyze distortions in data displays. Show how graphs and data can be distorted to support different points of view. [See: If-Expressions.]

OK.A2.F.1.8

Graph piecewise functions with no more than three branches (including linear, quadratic, or exponential branches) and analyze the function by identifying the domain, range, intercepts, and intervals for which it is increasing, decreasing, and constant. [See: Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme).]

OK.G.2D.1.5

Use coordinate geometry to represent and analyze line segments and polygons, including determining lengths, midpoints, and slopes of line segments. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme).]

OK.G.2D.1.8

Construct logical arguments to prove triangle congruence (SSS, SAS, ASA, AAS and HL) and triangle similarity (AA, SSS, SAS). [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

OK.G.3D.1.1

Solve real-world and mathematical problems using the surface area and volume of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones, spheres, and composites of these figures. Use nets, measuring devices, or formulas as appropriate. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

OK.G.RT.1.1

Apply the distance formula and the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse to solve real-world and mathematical problems, as approximate and exact values, using algebraic and logical reasoning (include Pythagorean Triples). [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme).]

OK.L1.AP.A.01

Create a prototype that uses algorithms (e.g., searching, sorting, finding shortest distance) to provide a possible solution for a real-world problem. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism; Grouped Samples.]

OK.L1.AP.M.01

Break down a solution into procedures using systematic analysis and design. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; If-Expressions; Method Chaining; Problem Decomposition; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining.]

OK.L1.AP.M.02

Create computational artifacts by systematically organizing, manipulating and/or processing data. [See: Table Methods; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining; If-Expressions; Method Chaining; Table Methods; Defining Table Functions; Method Chaining.]

OK.L1.AP.PD.05

Evaluate and refine computational artifacts to make them more user-friendly, efficient and/or accessible. [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

OK.L1.CS.D.01

Explain how abstractions hide the underlying implementation details of computing systems embedded in everyday objects. [See: Coordinates and Game Design(Pyret); Coordinates and Game Design(WeScheme).]

OK.L1.DA.CVT.01

Use tools and techniques to locate, collect, and create visualizations of small- and largescale data sets (e.g., paper surveys and online data sets). [See: Choosing Your Dataset.]

OK.L1.DA.IM.01

Show the relationships between collected data elements using computational models. [See: Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

OK.L1.IC.C.01

Evaluate the ways computing impacts personal, ethical, social, economic, and cultural practices. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

OK.L1.IC.C.02

Test and refine computational artifacts to reduce bias and equity deficits. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Checking Your Work; Threats to Validity; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples.]

OK.L1.IC.SLE.02

Explain the privacy concerns related to the large-scale collection and analysis of information about individuals (e.g., how businesses, social media, and the government collects and uses data) that may not be evident to users. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

OK.L1.IC.SLE.03

Evaluate the social and economic consequences of how law and ethics interact with digital aspects of privacy, data, property, information, and identity. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

OK.L2.AP.M.03

Create programming solutions by reusing existing code (e.g., libraries, Application Programming Interface (APIs), code repositories). [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Table Methods; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities; Table Methods.]

OK.L2.AP.PD.03

Develop programs for multiple computing platforms. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions.]

OK.L2.AP.PD.05

Develop and use a series of test cases to verify that a program performs according to its design specifications. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Restating the Problem; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.L2.AP.PD.07

Modify an existing program to add additional functionality and discuss intended and unintended implications (e.g., breaking other functionality). [See: Player Animation(Pyret); Player Animation(WeScheme).]

OK.L2.DA.CVT.01

Use data analysis tools and techniques to identify patterns from complex real-world data. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

OK.L2.DA.CVT.02

Generate data sets that use a variety of data collection tools and analysis techniques to support a claim and/or communicate information. [See: Spread of a dataset; Spread of a dataset.]

OK.L2.IC.C.01

Evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects that computational artifacts and innovations have on society. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

OK.L2.IC.SLE.01

Debate laws and regulations that impact the development and use of software. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

OK.MAP.1

Develop a deep and flexible conceptual understanding. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.MAP.4

Develop mathematical reasoning. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.PA.A.1.1

Recognize that a function is a relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable in which the value of the independent variable determines the value of the dependent variable. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Defining Functions(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme); Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Defining Functions; Contracts; Defining Functions.]

OK.PA.A.1.2

Use linear functions to represent and explain real-world and mathematical situations. [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Restating the Problem; Defining Functions.]

OK.PA.A.1.3

Identify a function as linear if it can be expressed in the form y = mx + b or if its graph is a straight line. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Restating the Problem; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.PA.A.2.1

Represent linear functions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols, and graphs; translate from one representation to another. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Restating the Problem; Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships; Solving Word Problems.]

OK.PA.A.2.2

Identify, describe, and analyze linear relationships between two variables. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships; Randomness and Sample Size; Grouped Samples; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

OK.PA.A.2.3

Identify graphical properties of linear functions including slope and intercepts. Know that the slope equals the rate of change, and that the yintercept is zero when the function represents a proportional relationship. [See: Defining Linear Relationships.]

OK.PA.A.3

Generate equivalent numerical and algebraic expressions and use algebraic properties to evaluate expressions. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

OK.PA.A.3.1

Use substitution to simplify and evaluate algebraic expressions. [See: Function Composition(Pyret); Defining Values(Pyret); Function Composition(WeScheme); Defining Values(WeScheme); Function Composition; Defining Values; Function Composition; Defining Values.]

OK.PA.A.4

Represent real-world and mathematical problems using equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve and graph equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in the original context. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

OK.PA.A.4.3

Represent real-world situations using equations and inequalities involving one variable. [See: Simple Inequalities(Pyret); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Simple Inequalities(WeScheme); Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Simple Inequalities; Compound Inequalities: Solutions & Non-Solutions; Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

OK.PA.D.1.1

Describe the impact that inserting or deleting a data point has on the mean and the median of a data set. Know how to create data displays using a spreadsheet and use a calculator to examine this impact. [See: Grouped Samples; Choosing Your Dataset; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

OK.PA.D.1.2

Explain how outliers affect measures of central tendency. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

OK.PA.D.1.3

Collect, display and interpret data using scatterplots. Use the shape of the scatterplot to informally estimate a line of best fit, make statements about average rate of change, and make predictions about values not in the original data set. Use appropriate titles, labels and units. [See: Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

OK.PA.D.2.2

Determine how samples are chosen (random, limited, biased) to draw and support conclusions about generalizing a sample to a population. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]

OK.PA.GM.1.2

Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between any two points in a coordinate plane. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme).]

OK.PA.GM.2.1

Calculate the surface area of a rectangular prism using decomposition or nets. Use appropriate units of measure, such as square centimeters. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

OK.SP.1.5

Use counting techniques including permutations and combinations to solve mathematical and real-world problems, including determining probabilities of compound events. [See: Permutations; Combinations.]

## Iowa Standards

IA.5.G.A.1

Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate). [See: Coordinates and Game Design(Pyret); Coordinates and Game Design(WeScheme).]

IA.6.EE.B.6

Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

IA.HSF.BF.A.1.B

Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. [See: Function Composition(Pyret); Function Composition(WeScheme); Function Composition; Function Composition.]

IA.HSF.BF.A.1.C

Compose functions. [See: Function Composition(Pyret); Function Composition(WeScheme); Function Composition; Function Composition.]

IA.HSF.IF.A.1

Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

## Connected Math

CMP.7.5

Moving Straight Ahead: Linear Relationships. [See: Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships.]

CMP.6.7

Data About Us: Statistics and Data Analysis. [See: Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

CMP.8.1

Thinking with Mathematical Models: Linear and Inverse Variations. [See: Measures of Center; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression; Linear Relationships; Defining Linear Relationships; Measures of Center; Scatter Plots; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

CMP.7.8

Samples and Populations: Making Comparisons and Predictions. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]

CMP.8.2

Looking for Pythagoras: The Pythagorean Theorem. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

CMP.Alg-Ext.2

Function Junction: Families of Functions. [See: Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme).]

CMP.6.4

Covering and Surrounding: Two Dimensional Measurement. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

CMP.7.7

Filling and Wrapping: Three Dimensional Measurement. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

CMP.6.6

Variables and Patterns: Focus on Algebra. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

CMP.6.1

Prime Time: Factors & Multiples. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

CMP.7.2

Accentuate the Negative: Integers and Rational Numbers. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

## IM 6 Math™

IM.6.8.15

Quartiles and Interquartile Range. [See: Spread of a dataset; Spread of a dataset.]

IM.6.8.16

IM.6.8.17

Using Box Plots. [See: Spread of a dataset; Spread of a dataset.]

IM.6.8.9

Interpreting the Mean as Fair Share. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

IM.6.8.10

Interpreting the Mean as the Balance Point. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

IM.6.8.13

The Median of a Data Set. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

IM.6.8.14

Comparing Mean and Median. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

IM.6.8.6

Histograms. [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

IM.6.8.7

Using Histograms to Answer Statistical Questions. [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

IM.6.8.8

Describing Distributions on Histograms. [See: Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data; Histograms; Visualizing the “Shape” of Data.]

IM.6.8.1
IM.6.8.2

Statistical Questions. [See: Introduction to Computational Data Science; Introduction to Computational Data Science.]

IM.6.6.8

Equal and Equivalent. [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition.]

IM.6.1.12

What is Surface Area?. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

IM.6.1.13
IM.6.1.14

Nets and Surface Area. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

IM.6.1.15

More Nets, More Surface Area. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

IM.6.3.8

More about Constant Speed. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme).]

IM.6.6.6

Write Expressions Where Letters Stand for Numbers. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme).]

IM.6.5.5

Decimal Points in Products. [See: Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Game Images(WeScheme).]

IM.6.1.3

Reasoning to Find Area. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.6.2.14

Solving Equivalent Ratio Problems. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.6.7.14

Distances on the Coordinate Plane. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.6.7.15

Shapes on the Coordinate Plane. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.6.6.2

Truth and Equations. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

IM.6.6.16

Two Related Quantities, Part 1. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.6.6.17

Two Related Quantities, Part 2. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.6.6.18

More Relationships. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.6.7.9
IM.6.7.10
IM.6.6.13

Expressions with Exponents. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

IM.6.6.14

Evaluating Expressions with Exponents. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

IM.6.6.15

Equivalent Exponential Expressions. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

## IM 7 Math™

IM.7.8.19

Comparing Populations with Friends. [See: Threats to Validity.]

IM.7.8.15

Estimating Populations Measures of Center. [See: Spread of a dataset; Spread of a dataset.]

IM.7.8.13

What Makes a Good Sample?. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

IM.7.8.11

Comparing Groups. [See: Grouped Samples; Measures of Center; Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples; Measures of Center.]

IM.7.8.18

Comparing Populations Using Samples. [See: Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples; Grouped Samples.]

IM.7.8.12

Larger Populations. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]

IM.7.8.14

Sampling in a Fair Way. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Threats to Validity; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]

IM.7.8.17

More about Sampling Variability. [See: Randomness and Sample Size; Threats to Validity; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]

IM.7.6.17

Modeling with Inequalities. [See: Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(Pyret); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities(WeScheme); Sam the Butterfly - Applying Inequalities.]

IM.7.7.14

Surface Area of Right Prisms. [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

IM.7.2.3

More about Constant of Proportionality. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Solving Word Problems.]

IM.7.1.1

What are Scaled Copies?. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.7.1.5

The Size of the Scale Factor. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.7.4.1

Lots of Flags. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.7.6.11

Using Equations to Solve Problems. [See: Defining Values(Pyret); Defining Values(WeScheme); Defining Values; Defining Values.]

IM.7.2.4

Proportional Relationships and Equations. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.7.2.5

Two Equations for Each Relationship. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.7.2.6

Using Equations to Solve Problems. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.7.6.13

Reintroducing Inequalities. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

IM.7.5.13

Expressions with Rational Numbers. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

IM.7.5.14

Solving Problems with Rational Numbers. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

## IM 8 Math™

IM.8.6.6

The Slope of a Fitted Line. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

IM.8.6.7

Observing More Patterns in Scatter Plots. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

IM.8.6.8

Analyzing Bivariate Data. [See: Linear Regression; Linear Regression.]

IM.8.6.4

Fitting a Lin to Data. [See: Correlations; Correlations.]

IM.8.6.5

Describing Trends in Scatter Plots. [See: Correlations; Correlations.]

IM.8.6.3

What a Point in a Scatter Plots Means. [See: Scatter Plots; Scatter Plots.]

IM.8.6.1
IM.8.6.2

Plotting Data. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Histograms; Scatter Plots; Displaying Categorical Data; Histograms; Scatter Plots.]

IM.8.8.11

Finding Distances in the Coordinate Plane. [See: Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(Pyret); Collision Detection - Distance and Inequality(WeScheme).]

IM.8.8.6

Finding Side Lengths of Triangles. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

IM.8.8.7

A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

IM.8.8.8

Finding Unknown Side Lengths. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

IM.8.8.10

Applications of the Pythagorean Theorem. [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

IM.8.5.10

Piecewise Linear Functions. [See: Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme).]

IM.8.3.11

Equations of All Kinds of Lines. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme).]

IM.8.5.3
IM.8.1.2

Naming the moves. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.8.1.3
IM.8.2.1

Projecting and Scaling. [See: Making Flags(Pyret); Making Game Images(Pyret); Making Flags(WeScheme); Making Game Images(WeScheme); Making Flags; Making Flags.]

IM.8.5.1

Inputs and Outputs. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.8.5.2

Introduction to Functions. [See: Contracts(Pyret); Contracts(WeScheme); Contracts; Contracts; Contracts; Contracts.]

IM.8.7.7

Practice with Rational Bases. [See: Order of Operations(Pyret); Order of Operations(WeScheme); Order of Operations.]

IM.8.1.1

## IM Algebra 1

IM.Alg1.3.9

Causal Relationships. [See: Linear Regression; Threats to Validity; Linear Regression.]

IM.Alg1.3.5

Fitting Lines. [See: Correlations; Correlations.]

IM.Alg1.3.7

The Correlation Coefficient. [See: Correlations; Linear Regression; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

IM.Alg1.3.8

Using the Correlation Coefficient. [See: Correlations; Linear Regression; Correlations; Linear Regression.]

IM.Alg1.3.4

Linear Models. [See: Scatter Plots; Scatter Plots.]

IM.Alg1.1.15

IM.Alg1.1.5

Calculating Measures of Center and Variability. [See: Measures of Center; Measures of Center.]

IM.Alg1.1.11

Comparing and Contrasting Data Distributions. [See: Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset; Measures of Center; Spread of a dataset.]

IM.Alg1.3.10

Fossils and Flags. [See: Choosing Your Dataset.]

IM.Alg1.1.9

Technological Graphing. [See: Data Displays and Lookups; Data Displays and Lookups.]

IM.Alg1.1.2

Data Representations. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Histograms; Displaying Categorical Data; Histograms.]

IM.Alg1.1.3

A Gallery of Data. [See: Displaying Categorical Data; Histograms; Displaying Categorical Data; Histograms.]

IM.Alg1.1.1

Getting to Know You. [See: Introduction to Computational Data Science; Introduction to Computational Data Science.]

IM.Alg1.2.9

Which Variable to Solve for? (Part 2). [See: The Distance Formula(Pyret); The Distance Formula(WeScheme).]

IM.Alg1.4.12

Piecewise Functions. [See: Piecewise Functions(Pyret); Player Animation(Pyret); Piecewise Functions(WeScheme); Player Animation(WeScheme).]

IM.Alg1.2.20
IM.Alg1.2.18
IM.Alg1.2.8

Which Variable to Solve for? (Part 1). [See: Problem Decomposition(Pyret); Problem Decomposition(WeScheme); Problem Decomposition.]

IM.Alg1.2.2

Writing Equations to Model Relationships (Part 1). [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

IM.Alg1.2.3

Writing Equations to Model Relationships (Part 2). [See: Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(Pyret); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism(WeScheme); Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism.]

IM.Alg1.4.6

Features of Graphs. [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme).]

IM.Alg1.4.10

Domain and Range (Part 1). [See: Functions for Character Animation(Pyret); Functions for Character Animation(WeScheme); Defining Table Functions; If-Expressions; Defining Table Functions.]

IM.Alg1.2.5

Equations and Their Graphs. [See: Solving Word Problems(Pyret); Solving Word Problems(WeScheme); Solving Word Problems; Solving Word Problems.]

IM.Alg1.4.4

Using Function Notation to Describe Rules (Part 1). [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Restating the Problem; Defining Functions.]

IM.Alg1.4.5

Using Function Notation to Describe Rules (Part 2). [See: Defining Functions(Pyret); Restating the Problem(Pyret); Defining Functions(WeScheme); Restating the Problem(WeScheme); Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Defining Functions; Restating the Problem; Defining Functions.]

IM.Alg1.4.2
IM.Alg1.4.3
IM.Alg1.1.6

Mystery Computations. [See: Simple Data Types(Pyret); Simple Data Types(WeScheme); Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types; Simple Data Types.]

IM.Alg1.2.6
IM.Alg1.4.1

Describing and Graphing Situations. [See: Coordinates and Game Design(Pyret); Coordinates and Game Design(WeScheme).]

## Social Justice Standards

SJ.12

Students will recognize unfairness on the individual level (e.g., biased speech) and injustice at the institutional or systemic level (e.g., discrimination).. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

SJ.13

Students will analyze the harmful impact of bias and injustice on the world, historically and today. [See: Ethics and Privacy.]

SJ.1

Students will develop positive social identities based on their membership in multiple groups in society. [See: Computing Needs All Voices.]

SJ.2

Students will develop language and historical and cultural knowledge that affirm and accurately describe their membership in multiple identity groups. [See: Computing Needs All Voices; Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

SJ.4

Students will express pride, confidence and healthy self-esteem without denying the value and dignity of other people.. [See: Computing Needs All Voices; Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

SJ.7

Students will develop language and knowledge to accurately and respectfully describe how people (including themselves) are both similar to and different from each other and others in their identity groups.. [See: Computing Needs All Voices; Displaying Categorical Data; Displaying Categorical Data.]

SJ.8

Students will respectfully express curiosity about the history and lived experiences of others and will exchange ideas and beliefs in an open-minded way. [See: Computing Needs All Voices.]

SJ.10

Students will examine diversity in social, cultural, political and historical contexts rather than in ways that are superficial or oversimplified.. [See: Computing Needs All Voices; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size; Randomness and Sample Size.]